The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Canada is an industrialized nation in the top 25% of the world's economies. Located in the northern half of North America, the climate is extremely diverse with classifications that range from cold polar (tundra and ice) to dry (semi arid), but is mainly humid cold (no dry season).
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, or rabies. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)No statement given.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: None.
Drug resistance: Not applicable.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
Minimal risk exists throughout the country. Community sanitation is generally good, and health concerns related to food and beverages are minimal.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
Additional concerns include hantavirus.
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Risk of attack by transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
From 2014 through 2018, isolated attacks occurred throughout the country.
Negligible risk of violent crime and low risk of petty crime exist throughout the country, mainly in cities and areas frequented by tourists, including hotels and public transportation. Theft from vehicles is common in cities, including Montreal, Vancouver, and Toronto.
Risk exists of robberies and/or assaults occurring after consuming intentionally drugged food or drink; tourists are frequently targeted.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
Other Safety Threats
Risk exists for fatal wildlife attacks. Travelers should closely follow regulations from local authorities and always maintain a safe distance from wildlife.
Low risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is less than 7 per 100,000 population, the lowest risk category.
Traffic flows on the right-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has determined that the civil aviation authority of this country oversees its air carriers in accordance with minimum international safety standards.
Winter storms frequently occur, especially in Alberta and British Colombia provinces. Avalanches may occur.
Extreme cold (which can lead to cold-related injury) occurs from October through May in northern areas.
Forest fires occur from May through August in western areas.
Seismic activity occurs, especially in British Columbia Province and Yukon Territory.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Canada
- United States: 613-688-5335; ca.usembassy.gov
- United Kingdom: [+1] 613-237-1530; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-high-commission-ottawa
- Australia: [+1] 613-236-0841; canada.embassy.gov.au
Canada's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.canadianembassy.org
- In the U.K.: www.canadainternational.gc.ca/united_kingdom-royaume_uni
- In Australia: www.australia.gc.ca
HIV and hepatitis testing may be required to obtain a work or residence visa.