The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Indonesia is a developing nation in the lower half of the world's economies. Located along the equator between Southeast Asia and Australia, it consists of more than 3,000 islands that span approximately 5,800 km (3,400 mi). Its climate is tropical but more moderate in the highlands.
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
Although yellow fever does not occur in Indonesia, an official yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required depending on your itinerary.
- Requirement: A vaccination certificate is required for travelers aged ≥ 9 months coming from countries with risk of YF transmission.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, or typhoid fever. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)Malaria risk exists throughout the year in most areas of the five eastern provinces of East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, North Maluku, Papua and West Papua. In other parts of the country, there is malaria risk in some districts, except in Jakarta Municipality, in cities and urban areas, and in the areas of the main tourist resorts. P. vivax resistant to chloroquine reported. Human P. knowlesi infection reported in the province of Kalimantan.
- Recommended prevention in risk areas: C – Risk of P. falciparum malaria, in combination with reported chloroquine and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance. Mosquito bite prevention plus atovaquone–proguanil or doxycycline or mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (select according to reported side effects and contraindications) a
aAlternatively, for travel to rural areas with low risk of malaria infection, mosquito bite prevention can be combined with stand–by emergency treatment (SBET).
WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: All areas of eastern Indonesia (provinces of Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, and Papua Barat), including the town of Labuan Bajo and Komodo Islands in the Nusa Tenggara region. Rural areas of Kalimantan (Borneo), Nusa Tenggara Barat (includes the island of Lombok), Sulawesi, and Sumatra. Low transmission in rural areas of Java, including Pangandaran, Sukalumi, and Ujung Kulong. None in cities of Jakarta and Ubud, resort areas of Bali and Java, and Gili Islands and the Thousand Islands (Pulau Seribu).
- Estimated relative risk of malaria for US travelers: Low.
- Drug resistance4: Chloroquine (P. falciparum and P. vivax)
- Malaria species: P. falciparum 57%, P. vivax. 43%, P. malariae, P. knowlesi, P. ovale rare.
- Recommended chemoprophylaxis: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine.
4 Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
High risk exists throughout the country, with moderate risk in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
Additional concerns include air pollution, avian influenza, helminths, leptospirosis, marine hazards, melioidosis, monkey bites, plague, schistosomiasis, sexually transmitted infections, snakebites, tuberculosis.
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to postearthquake security concerns, Australia (DFAT) advises reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to Lombok Island and Gili Islands. Due to volcanic activity, U.K. (FCO) advises avoiding travel within 4 km (2.5 mi) of Mount Agung in East Bali and within 7 km (4.3 mi) of Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra. Due to ongoing violence, U.S. (DOS) and Australia (DFAT) advise reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to Central Sulawesi and Papua provinces. Canada (GAC) has a more limited warning.
High risk of attack by domestic terrorist groups exists throughout the country, including Bali Island and Jakarta. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
High risk of kidnapping by terrorist groups exists in the Celebes Sea. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners).
Risk of violent crime (armed robbery and sexual assault) and high risk of petty crime exist throughout the country, especially on the islands of Bali and Lombok and in urban areas.
Kidnappings by criminal groups may occur in Aceh, West Papua, and Papua provinces.
Scams involving ATMs, credit cards, time-share and property rentals, fraudulent tour operators, and charging exorbitant fees for services have been reported.
Risk exists of robberies and/or assaults occurring after consuming intentionally drugged food or drink; tourists are frequently targeted. Methanol is commonly used to incapacitate victims. Highest threat areas include the islands of Bali, Lombok, and Sumatra.
Protests and demonstrations frequently occur throughout the country, especially in Jakarta near major government buildings and foreign embassies, and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities.
Armed conflict may occur and restricted areas exist in Papua and West Papua provinces.
A dangerous security environment may exist in Aceh Province.
Ethnic tensions may be present in Maluku Province.
Piracy (involving commercial and private, leisure vessels) occurs in coastal and international waters.
Hazardous water conditions (including currents, tides, and undertows) may occur. Heed posted warnings, and avoid beaches that are not patrolled. Do not swim alone or after dark, and do not walk on any beach after dark.
Passenger boats may be unsafe, including ferries traveling between islands (including Bali, Lombok, and other areas frequented by tourists). Decline water transportation in vessels that appear overloaded or lack personal flotation devices or life jackets.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI, and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
High risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is 12 to 24 per 100,000 population. The rate is less than 10 in most high-income countries. Speed laws are poorly enforced. Seek local advice before traveling on roads outside urban areas after dark. Driving at night is not advised.
Traffic flows on the left-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
Rail and metro services do not meet international safety standards (due to unsafe vehicles, poor maintenance, and hazardous driving).
Many taxis are unsafe. Use taxis from official ranks or dispatched via smart phone app or radio from a reputable company and ascertain the license or identification number of the dispatched vehicle.
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has determined that the civil aviation authority of this country oversees its air carriers in accordance with minimum international safety standards.
The monsoon season is from October through March, but heavy rains are common throughout the year. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur, especially in Jakarta and West, Central, East Java, and West Sumatra provinces.
Seismic and volcanic activity frequently occur.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Indonesia
- United States: [+62] 21-3435-9000; id.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+62] 21-2550-7800; www.indonesia.gc.ca
- United Kingdom: [+62] 21-2356-5200; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-embassy-jakarta
- Australia: [+62] 21-2550-5555; www.indonesia.embassy.gov.au
Indonesia's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.embassyofindonesia.org
- In Canada: www.indonesia-ottawa.org
- In the U.K.: www.indonesianembassy.org.uk
- In Australia: www.kemlu.go.id/canberra
HIV testing is not required to obtain a tourist, work, or residence visa.