The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Kosovo is a developing nation in the lower half of the world's economies. Located between Serbia and Macedonia in southeastern Europe, its climate varies by region but generally is characterized by hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, or rabies. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)No statement given.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: None.
Drug resistance: Not applicable.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
Moderate risk exists throughout the country, with minimal risk in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to ongoing violence and ongoing security concerns, U.S. (DOS), U.K. (FCO), Canada (GAC), and Australia (DFAT) advise reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to the municipalities of Zvecan, Zubin Potok, and Leposavi and to northern areas of the city of Mitrovica (Mitrovica Municipality).
Risk of attack by transnational terrorist groups exists throughout Europe. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
Low risk of violent crime (armed robbery and carjacking) exists throughout the country. Organized criminal groups are active in casinos and nightclubs.
Risk of petty crime exists throughout the country, especially in Pristina, in airports, on or near public transportation, in crowded places, and in areas frequented by foreigners and tourists. Theft of valuables from unattended vehicles is common.
Scams involving ATMs have been reported.
Protests and demonstrations frequently occur throughout the country, especially in the cities of Pristina and Gjakova, and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.
The security situation, particularly in north Kosovo, remains unpredictable.
Kosovo declared its independence in 2008; Serbia does not recognize Kosovo’s independence. Travelers may experience difficulty crossing that border; along the border the security situation is unpredictable, and attacks and roadblocks may occur.
International explosive ordnance disposal teams have cleared all major routes and population centers, in addition to marking remaining sites known to contain mines or other unexploded ordnance. However, unexploded land mines may remain along the Albania-Kosovo border. Cluster bombs are a problem throughout rural areas but can also be found elsewhere, including urban areas. Off-road travel and hiking in wooded areas can be dangerous. Exercise vigilance and risk-avoidance strategies.
National incidence data on traffic-related injury or death are not available.
Traffic flows on the right-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
Forest fires occur during the dry season from June through September, especially in northern areas.
Seismic activity frequently occurs.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Kosovo
- United States: [+381] 38-59-59-3000; xk.usembassy.gov
- Canada: Canada does not have an embassy or consulate in Kosovo.
- United Kingdom: [+381] 038-254-700; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-embassy-pristina
- Australia: Australia does not have an embassy or consulate in Kosovo.
Kosovo's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.ambasada-ks.net/us
- In Canada: [+1] 613-569-2828
- In the U.K.: [+44] 020-7405-1010
- In Australia: [+61] 02-6156-1532
HIV testing is not required to obtain a tourist, work, or residence visa.