The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Mozambique is a developing nation in the lowest 25% of the world's economies. Located on the southeastern coast of Africa, its climate varies from tropical to subtropical.
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
Although yellow fever does not occur in Mozambique, an official yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required depending on your itinerary.
- Requirement: A vaccination certificate is required for travelers aged ≥ 9 months coming from countries with risk of YF transmission (except Argentina, French Guiana, Paraguay, and South Sudan) and from São Tomé and Príncipe, Somalia, and Tanzania. Note: This applies to airport layovers longer than 12 hours in these countries. Proof of YF vaccination is often required for travelers coming from nonrisk countries, despite Mozambique's published declaration to the contrary under the International Health Regulations.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, or typhoid fever. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)(2015) Malaria risk due predominantly to P. falciparum exists throughout the year in the whole country.
- Recommended prevention: C – Risk of P. falciparum malaria, in combination with reported chloroquine and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance. Mosquito bite prevention plus atovaquone–proguanil or doxycycline or mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (select according to reported side effects and contraindications) a
aAlternatively, for travel to rural areas with low risk of malaria infection, mosquito bite prevention can be combined with stand–by emergency treatment (SBET).
WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: All.
- Estimated relative risk of malaria for US travelers: Moderate.
- Drug resistance4: Chloroquine.
- Malaria species: P. falciparum > 90%, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. vivax rare.
- Recommended chemoprophylaxis: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine.
4 Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
High risk exists throughout the country, including in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to the threat of terrorism and ongoing security concerns, Canada (GAC) advises avoiding travel to Cabo Delgado Province. Australia (DFAT) advises reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to Cabo Delgado Province; by road on EN1 in Sofala Province between the Save River and the town of Muxungue and from the towns of Gorongosa to Caia; and on EN6 between Beira, Sofala Province and Chimoio, Manica Province. U.S. (DOS) and U.K. (FCO) have more limited warnings.
Low risk of attack by transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
High risk of violent crime (armed robbery, home invasion, and carjacking) and petty crime exists throughout the country, especially in Maputo and other cities.
Kidnappings by criminal groups occur throughout the country, especially in Maputo (including Matola), Beira, Sofala Province, and other cities. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners).
Scams involving the use of distraction techniques to commit robbery (including ploys to detain drivers) have been reported.
Protests and demonstrations occur throughout the country and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation may occur.
Armed conflict occurs in the town of Mocimboa da Praia, Cabo Delgado Province.
A dangerous security environment exists in Manica and Sofala provinces, especially on the EN1 and EN6 roads.
Landmines and other unexploded ordnance may be present in remote areas.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI, and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
Significant risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is > 24 per 100,000 population, the highest risk category. Carefully assess the safety of transportation options before any road travel. Speed laws are poorly enforced. Driving at night is not advised. Seek local advice before traveling on roads outside urban areas after dark.
Traffic flows on the left-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
The rainy season is from November through April, coinciding with the cyclone season. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur, especially in coastal areas, around river basins (particularly the Zambezi River), and in central and southern provinces.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Mozambique
- United States: [+258] 21-49-27-97; mz.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+258] 21-492-623; www.canadainternational.gc.ca/mozambique
- United Kingdom: [+258] 21-35-60-00; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-high-commission-maputo
- Australia: [+258] 21-498-778
Mozambique's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.embamoc-usa.org
- In Canada: Mozambique does not have an embassy or consulate in Canada.
- In the U.K.: www.mozambiquehighcommission.org.uk
- In Australia: [+61] 02-9669-1099
HIV testing is not required to obtain a tourist, work, or residence visa.