The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
South Sudan (Republic of South Sudan) is a developing nation in the lowest 25% of the world's economies. Located south of Sudan and west of Ethiopia in eastern Africa, its climate is tropical.
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
- Requirement: No requirements are stated for any traveler. Note: South Sudan's government has announced the implementation of a strictly enforced entry requirement and proof of YF vaccination (presumed 10-year validity) for all travelers, despite South Sudan's published declaration to the contrary under the International Health Regulations.
- Official Status: listed by WHO as a country where YF transmission risk is present.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, rabies, or typhoid fever. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)Malaria risk due predominantly to P. falciparum exists throughout the year in the whole country.
- Recommended prevention: C – Risk of P. falciparum malaria, in combination with reported chloroquine and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance. Mosquito bite prevention plus atovaquone–proguanil or doxycycline or mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (select according to reported side effects and contraindications) a
aAlternatively, for travel to rural areas with low risk of malaria infection, mosquito bite prevention can be combined with stand–by emergency treatment (SBET).
WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: All.
- Estimated relative risk of malaria for US travelers: High.
- Drug resistance4: Chloroquine.
- Malaria species: P. falciparum 90%, P. vivax 5%-10%, P. malariae and P. ovale rare.
- Recommended chemoprophylaxis: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine.
4 Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
High risk exists throughout the country, including in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to military conflict, ethnic tensions, and other ongoing security concerns, U.S. (DOS), U.K. (FCO), Canada (GAC), and Australia (DFAT) advise avoiding all travel to this country.
Low risk of attack by transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
High risk of violent crime (armed robbery, home invasion, sexual assault, and carjacking) and petty crime exists throughout the country, especially in Juba.
Kidnappings by criminal groups occur throughout the country, especially in remote areas. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners and those working for oil companies), missionaries, and aid workers.
Scams involving false identity (such as criminals posing as police officers or security guards) have been reported.
Protests and demonstrations occur throughout the country and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.
The Republic of South Sudan became an independent state on July 9, 2011. Border areas between South Sudan and Sudan are particularly vulnerable to civil unrest, tribal violence, military activity and armed conflict, especially in the disputed area of Abyei. Armed militia groups operate across and in the border areas and military operations and air-strikes occur frequently.
The security situation in South Sudan's border areas with Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic remains volatile and extremely dangerous. Armed militias are present in these areas.
The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), currently based in the DRC and CAR, was active in the western regions of South Sudan, especially in the Western Equatoria, Central Equatoria, and Western Bahr El Ghazal states. Many people were killed or abducted, and thousands have been internally displaced as a result of LRA attacks.
The area south of Juba is highly unstable and should be avoided. Inter-ethnic violence, particularly in the state of Jonglei, is common. Tribal confrontations over land ownership and cattle rustling have led to child abductions and reprisal attacks against women and children.
Land mines have been laid in rural areas in many parts of the country.
National incidence data on traffic-related injury or death are not available.
Traffic flows on the right-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
According to U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, there is a high risk to civil aviation in this country. The government of South Sudan has publicly stated the intent to shoot down any improperly identified aircraft.
The rainy season is from April through November. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in South Sudan
- United States: [+211] 912-105-188; ss.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+211] 955-196-936; www.canadainternational.gc.ca/south_sudan-soudan_du_sud
- United Kingdom: [+211] 912-323712; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-embassy-juba
- Australia: Australia does not have an embassy or consulate in South Sudan.
South Sudan's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.southsudanembassyusa.org
- In Canada: South Sudan does not have an embassy or consulate in Canada.
- In the U.K.: www.embrss.org.uk
- In Australia: South Sudan does not have an embassy or consulate in Australia.
HIV testing is not required to obtain a tourist, work, or residence visa.