The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Sudan is a developing nation in the lower half of the world's economies. Located south of Egypt along the Red Sea in northern Africa, its climate arid desert. Desert climate in portions of this country may aggravate respiratory conditions.
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
An official yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required depending on your itinerary. Vaccination is usually recommended if you’ll be traveling in areas where there is risk of yellow fever transmission.
- Requirement: A vaccination certificate is required for travelers aged ≥ 1 year coming from countries with risk of YF transmission. Note: This applies to airport layovers longer than 12 hours in these countries. A certificate may be required for travelers departing Sudan.
- Official Status: listed by WHO as a country where YF transmission risk is present.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, rabies, or typhoid fever. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)(2015) Malaria risk due predominantly to P. falciparum exists throughout the year in the whole country. Risk is low and seasonal in the north; it is higher in the central and southern parts of the country. Malaria risk on the Red Sea coast is very limited.
- Recommended prevention: C – Risk of P. falciparum malaria, in combination with reported chloroquine and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance. Mosquito bite prevention plus atovaquone–proguanil or doxycycline or mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (select according to reported side effects and contraindications) a
aAlternatively, for travel to rural areas with low risk of malaria infection, mosquito bite prevention can be combined with stand–by emergency treatment (SBET).
WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: All.
- Estimated relative risk of malaria for US travelers: High.
- Drug resistance4: Chloroquine.
- Malaria species: P. falciparum 90%, P. vivax 5%-10%, P. malariae and P. ovale rare.
- Recommended chemoprophylaxis: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine.
4 Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
High risk exists throughout the country, including in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to terrorism, armed conflict, and other ongoing security concerns, Australia (DFAT) advises avoiding travel to Blue Nile, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Sinnar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, White Nile states, and Abyei Disputed Area; and advises reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to the rest of the country. U.S. (DOS), U.K. (FCO), and Canada (GAC) have more limited warnings.
Risk of attack by domestic and/or transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country, including Khartoum. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
High risk of kidnapping by terrorist groups exists throughout the country, especially in Khartoum and Darfur states. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners), journalists, nongovernmental organization workers, missionaries, and aid workers.
High risk of violent crime (armed robbery, sexual assault, carjacking, and murder) exists in western areas of the country, especially in the Darfur states and areas bordering Chad. Low risk of violent crime and risk of petty crime exist in Khartoum.
Protests and demonstrations occur throughout the country, especially in Khartoum and other cities, and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.
Armed conflict occurs in Blue Nile, North Darfur, South Darfur, South Kordofan, and West Darfur states.
A dangerous security environment exists in areas bordering Eritrea and Libya.
Territorial disputes occur in the Abyei Disputed Area.
Piracy (involving commercial and private, leisure vessels) occurs in coastal and international waters.
Significant risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is greater than 24 per 100,000 population, the highest risk category. Carefully assess the safety of transportation options before any road travel. Driving at night is not advised. Seek local advice before traveling on roads outside urban areas after dark.
Traffic flows on the right-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
Public buses, public vans, and mototaxis do not meet international safety standards (due to unsafe vehicles, poor maintenance, and hazardous driving).
Taxis are unsafe. Use a privately hired driver.
The rainy season is from October through January. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur.
Sandstorms and dust storms frequently occur, especially in northern and central areas.
Extreme heat (which can lead to heat-related illness) occurs from May through September.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Sudan
- United States: [+249] 187-022000; sd.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+249] 156-550-500; www.canadainternational.gc.ca/sudan-soudan
- United Kingdom: [+249] 156-775500; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-embassy-khartoum
- Australia: Australia does not have an embassy or consulate in Sudan.
Sudan's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.sudanembassy.org
- In Canada: www.sudanembassy.ca/embassy_e.htm
- In the U.K.: www.sudan-embassy.co.uk
- In Australia: [+61] 02-6290-2635
HIV testing may be required to obtain a work or residence visa. Travelers, including short-term travelers, may be detained or deported after arrival if found to be positive for HIV or hepatitis.