The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Australia is an industrialized nation in the top 25% of the world's economies. Located in the Pacific Ocean, its climate is generally arid to semiarid, but varies by region. Desert climate in portions of this country may aggravate respiratory conditions.
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
Although yellow fever does not occur in Australia, an official yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required depending on your itinerary.
- Requirement: A vaccination certificate is required for travelers aged ≥ 1 year coming from countries with risk of YF transmission (except Galápagos Islands in Ecuador and the island of Tobago) and from Misiones Province in Argentina. Note: This applies to airport layovers longer than 12 hours in these countries.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against hepatitis B, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, or rabies. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)No statement given.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: None.
Drug resistance: Not applicable.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
Minimal risk exists throughout the country. Community sanitation is generally good, and health concerns related to food and beverages are minimal.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Other Food-Borne Illnesses
Precautions to prevent seafood poisoning may be needed.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Risk of attack by transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
Low risk of violent crime exists throughout the country.
Risk of petty crime exists, especially in Sydney (particularly in areas in and around Kings Cross, downtown George Street, Darling Harbour, Bondi Beach, The Rocks, Hyde Park, and Centennial Park) and other cities throughout the country (including areas frequented by tourists).
Scams involving time-share and property rental hoaxes have been reported.
Risk exists of robberies and/or assaults occurring after consuming intentionally drugged food or drink; tourists are frequently targeted.
Protests and demonstrations occur throughout the country and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation may occur.
Hazardous water conditions (including currents, tides, and undertows) may occur, including at areas popular with tourists. Heed posted warnings and avoid beaches that are not patrolled. Do not swim alone or after dark, and do not walk on any beach after dark.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI, and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
Other Safety Threats
Risk exists of fatal wildlife attacks from crocodiles in coastal and in-land waterways in northern tropical areas. Closely follow regulations from local authorities and always maintain a safe distance from wildlife.
Low risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is < 7 per 100,000 population, the lowest risk category.
Traffic flows on the left-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has determined that the civil aviation authority of this country oversees its air carriers in accordance with minimum international safety standards.
The cyclone season is from November through April, especially in Queensland State, Northern Territory, and Western Australia State. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur.
Bush fires occur during the dry season from April through October.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Australia
- United States: [+61] 02-6214-5600; au.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+61] 2-6270-4000; www.australia.gc.ca
- United Kingdom: [+61] 0-2-6270-6666; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-high-commission-canberra
Australia's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.usa.embassy.gov.au
- In Canada: www.canada.highcommission.gov.au
- In the U.K.: www.uk.embassy.gov.au
HIV testing is required to obtain a work or residence visa. Hepatitis testing may be required to obtain a work or residence visa.