The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Israel is an industrialized nation in the top 25% of the world's economies. Located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, its climate varies from hot and dry in the southern and eastern desert areas to temperate elsewhere.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, or typhoid fever. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)No statement given.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: None.
Drug resistance: Not applicable.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
Moderate risk exists throughout the country, including in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Other Food-Borne Illnesses
Precautions to prevent brucellosis may be needed.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to kidnapping, military conflict, and other ongoing security concerns, Canada (GAC) advises avoiding travel to areas of the Golan Heights bordering Syria (except the towns of Buq'ata, Masada, and Majdal Shams); within 20 km (12 mi) of the border with Egypt; and within 500 m (1,640 ft) of the border with Lebanon and advises reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to areas bordering the Gaza Strip. U.K. (FCO) and Australia (DFAT) have more limited warnings. U.S. (DOS) has no current warning.
High risk of attack by domestic terrorist groups exists throughout the country, especially in areas bordering Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt, and in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
Negligible risk of violent crime exists throughout the country.
Risk of petty crime exists in areas frequented by tourists, especially on public beaches. Theft of valuables from unattended rental vehicles is common.
Kidnappings by criminal groups may occur in areas bordering Egypt.
Scams charging exorbitant fees for products have been reported.
Protests and demonstrations frequently occur throughout the country, including Jerusalem, and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.
Rocket attacks from neighboring countries are a constant threat. The security situation along the coast of Gaza is dangerous and volatile. There is potential for further violence.
There are live land mines in certain areas, including along Israel's borders and in many areas of the Golan Heights. Some minefields have not been clearly marked or fenced. Visitors should walk only on established roads or trails.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI, and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
Other Safety Threats
During any military operation, the Israel Defense Forces may declare an area a closed military zone. Any civilians found in the area in breach of these orders can be arrested, detained in prison and, where considered appropriate, deported.
Security at checkpoints is periodically increased in response to security alerts.
Low risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is < 7 per 100,000 population, the lowest risk category.
Traffic flows on the right-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has determined that the civil aviation authority of this country oversees its air carriers in accordance with minimum international safety standards.
Sandstorms and dust storms frequently occur.
Seasonal flooding occurs, especially in the Negev Desert and the Judean hills.
Seismic activity frequently occurs.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Israel
- United States: [+972] 03-519-7475, il.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+972] 3-636-3300, www.israel.gc.ca
- United Kingdom: [+972] 0-3-725-1222, www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-embassy-tel-aviv
- Australia: [+972] 3-693-5000, www.israel.embassy.gov.au
Israel's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.israelemb.org
- In Canada: ottawa.mfa.gov.il
- In the U.K.: www.embassyofisrael.co.uk
- In Australia: embassies.gov.il/canberra
HIV and hepatitis testing are required to obtain a work or residence visa. Travelers, including short-term travelers, may be detained or deported after arrival if found to be positive for HIV or hepatitis.