The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and US CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Australia is an advanced economy classified as high income. Located in the Pacific Ocean (west of New Zealand and south of Indonesia), the climate is extremely diverse with classifications that range from dry summer to humid equatorial (short dry season).
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
Although yellow fever does not occur in Australia, an official yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required depending on your itinerary.
- Requirement: A certificate proving yellow fever vaccination is required for travelers aged ≥ 1 year coming from countries with risk of YF transmission (except Galápagos Islands in Ecuador). This also applies to airport transit stops (no exit through immigration checkpoint) longer than 12 hours in risk countries.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against COVID-19, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, or rabies. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)No statement given.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)
Areas with malaria: None.
Drug resistance: Not applicable.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
Minimal risk (comparable to that in other industrialized countries) exists throughout the country. Community sanitation and food safety measures are generally good, and health concerns related to food and beverage consumption are minimal. Risk for viral gastroenteritis (e.g., norovirus) may be elevated based on season, traveler itinerary, and/or level of community transmission.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Other Food-Borne Illnesses
Precautions to prevent seafood poisoning may be needed.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the US Department of State (DOS), the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Risk of attack by transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
From 2014 through 2018, isolated attacks have occurred throughout the country.
Low risk of violent crime (sexual assault and assault) exists throughout the country.
Moderate risk of petty crime exists, especially in Sydney (particularly in areas in and around Kings Cross, downtown George Street, Darling Harbour, Bondi Beach, The Rocks, Hyde Park, and Centennial Park) and other cities throughout the country (including areas frequented by tourists).
Theft of valuables from unattended vehicles and accommodations is common.
Scams involving time-share and property rental hoaxes have been reported.
Risk exists of robberies and/or assaults occurring after consuming intentionally drugged food or drink; tourists are frequently targeted.
Protests and demonstrations may infrequently occur and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.
Hazardous water conditions (including currents, tides, and undertows) may occur, including at areas popular with tourists. Heed posted warnings and avoid beaches that are not patrolled. Do not swim alone or after dark and do not walk on any beach after dark.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
Other Safety Threats
Risk exists for fatal wildlife attacks from crocodiles in coastal and in-land waterways in northern tropical areas. Travelers should closely follow regulations from local authorities and always maintain a safe distance from wildlife.
Low risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road traffic death rate is less than 7 per 100,000 population, the lowest risk category.
The US Federal Aviation Administration has determined that the civil aviation authority of this country oversees its air carriers in accordance with minimum international safety standards.
The cyclone season is from November through April, especially in Queensland State, Northern Territory, and Western Australia State. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur.
Bush fires occur during the dry season from April through October.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Australia
- United States: [+61] 02-6214-5600; au.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+61] 2-6270-4000; www.australia.gc.ca
- United Kingdom: [+61] 0-2-6270-6666; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-high-commission-canberra
Australia's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.usa.embassy.gov.au
- In Canada: www.canada.highcommission.gov.au
- In the U.K.: www.uk.embassy.gov.au
HIV testing is required to obtain a work or residence visa. Hepatitis testing may be required to obtain a work or residence visa.