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General Map

General map of Egypt

Medical Summary

The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and US CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).

General Information

Egypt is a developing nation classified as lower middle income. Located in northeastern Africa (east of Libya and north of Sudan), the climate is classified as predominantly dry (arid).


Yellow Fever

See also: Library article for Yellow Fever

Although yellow fever does not occur in Egypt, an official yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required depending on your itinerary.

  • Requirement: A certificate proving yellow fever vaccination is required for travelers aged ≥ 9 months coming from countries with risk of YF transmission. This also applies to airport transit stops (no exit through immigration checkpoint) longer than 12 hours in risk countries.

Other Vaccines

Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against COVID-19, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, typhoid fever, or a one time polio booster if you haven't previously received one for travel. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.


See also: Library article for Malaria

The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC):

WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)

(2020) Very limited malaria risk due to P. falciparum and P. vivax may exist from June through October in El Faiyûm Governorate. No indigenous cases have been reported since 1998.
  • Recommended prevention: none

WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.

CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)

Areas with malaria: None.
Drug resistance: Not applicable.

Other Concerns

Travelers' Diarrhea

See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea

High risk exists throughout the country, including in deluxe accommodations. Community sanitation and food safety measures are generally inadequate. Some itineraries (e.g., remote destinations, austere accommodations) and activities (e.g., ecotourism, eating street or local-market food) further increase risk.

Travelers should observe food and beverage precautions, which reduce the likelihood of illness.

Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.

Other Food-Borne Illnesses

Precautions to prevent brucellosis, seafood poisoning may be needed.

Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases

Chikungunya, dengue, leishmaniasis, murine typhus, Rift Valley fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, West Nile virus may pose a risk. Personal protective measures are important.

Other Disease and Health Risks

Additional concerns include air pollution, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, hepatitis C, leptospirosis, marine hazards, plague, schistosomiasis, sexually transmitted infections, snakebites.

Consular Advice

The material below includes information from the US Department of State (DOS), the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.

Consular Travel Advice

Due to terrorism, military conflict, and other ongoing security concerns, US (DOS) advises avoiding travel to all border areas, the Sinai Peninsula (with the exception of travel to Sharm El-Sheikh by air), and the Western Desert. US (DOS) also advises reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to the rest of the country. UK (FCO), Canada (GAC), and Australia (DFAT) have more limited warnings.

A state of emergency, declared in response to terrorism, is in place in North Sinai. Consular sites advise against travel to North Sinai. Travelers who are in North Sinai despite consular warnings against travel should maintain a high level of security awareness, carry a fully charged communication device, follow the advice of local authorities (including on how to handle health care emergencies), and monitor the situation through local media and embassy communications.

Terrorism Risk

High risk of attack by domestic and transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country, especially in Cairo and the Sinai Peninsula. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; places of worship; and transportation systems.

Two bomb attacks have occurred on tourist buses near the Giza pyramids since December 2018.

High risk of kidnapping by terrorist groups exists throughout the country, especially in the Sinai Peninsula. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners and those working for oil companies), journalists, nongovernmental organization workers, missionaries, and aid workers.


Moderate risk of violent crime (armed robbery, home invasion, sexual assault [including verbal and physical harassment], and carjacking) and moderate risk of petty crime exist throughout the country, especially in cities and areas frequented by tourists.

Theft of valuables from unattended vehicles and accommodations is common.

Scams involving exorbitant fees for services have been reported.

Civil Unrest

Protests and demonstrations occur throughout the country and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.

Unsafe Areas

A dangerous security environment and military presence exist in the Sinai Peninsula, Western Desert, and areas bordering Libya.

Water Safety

Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.

Outdoor Safety

Basic safety standards for adventure activities (including hot air ballooning and recreational off-roading) may not be in place. Travelers should only use reputable adventure-sport operators for activities and equipment rentals.

Desert excursions should only be undertaken with organized groups and experienced guides. Participants should inform someone not on the tour of their itinerary and anticipated return time. An adequate supply of food and water for extended unforeseen delays is essential.

Transportation Safety

Risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road traffic death rate is 7 to 12 per 100,000 population. The rate is less than 10 in most high-income countries.

Airline Safety

The US Federal Aviation Administration has determined that the civil aviation authority of this country oversees its air carriers in accordance with minimum international safety standards.

Natural Disasters

Sandstorms and dust storms frequently occur.

Seismic activity frequently occurs, especially in Cairo.

Consular Information

Selected Embassies or Consulates in Egypt

  • United States: [+20] 2-2797-3300; eg.usembassy.gov
  • Canada: [+20] 2-2461-2200; international.gc.ca/world-monde/egypt-egypte
  • United Kingdom: [+20] 2-2791-6000; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-embassy-cairo
  • Australia: [+20] 2-2770-6600; www.egypt.embassy.gov.au

Egypt's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries

  • In the U.S.: www.egyptembassy.net
  • In Canada: www.mfa.gov.eg
  • In the U.K.: [+44] 020-7499-3304
  • In Australia: www.egypt.org.au

Visa/HIV Testing

HIV testing is required to obtain a work or residence visa. Travelers, including short-term travelers, may be detained or deported after arrival if found to be positive for HIV.