The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and US CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Indonesia is a developing nation classified as lower middle income. Located in Southeast Asia between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, the climate classifications range from humid equatorial (no dry season) to humid equatorial (long dry season).
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
Although yellow fever does not occur in Indonesia, an official yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required depending on your itinerary.
- Requirement: A vaccination certificate is required for travelers aged ≥ 9 months coming from countries with risk of YF transmission. This does not apply to airport transit stops (no exit through immigration checkpoint) in risk countries.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, or typhoid fever. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)(2018) Malaria risk exists throughout the year in most areas of the five eastern provinces of East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, North Maluku, Papua and West Papua. In other parts of the country, there is Malaria risk in some districts, except in Jakarta municipality, in cities and urban areas, and in the areas of the main tourist resorts. P. vivax resistance to chloroquine has been reported. Human P. knowlesi infection has been reported in the province of Kalimantan.
- Recommended prevention in risk areas: C – Risk of P. falciparum malaria, in combination with reported chloroquine and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance. Mosquito bite prevention plus atovaquone–proguanil or doxycycline or mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (select according to reported side effects and contraindications) a
aAlternatively, for travel to rural areas with low risk of malaria infection, mosquito bite prevention can be combined with stand–by emergency treatment (SBET).
WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: All areas of eastern Indonesia (provinces of Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, and Papua Barat), including the town of Labuan Bajo and Komodo Islands in the Nusa Tenggara region. Rural areas of Kalimantan (Borneo), Nusa Tenggara Barat (includes the island of Lombok), Sulawesi, and Sumatra. Low transmission in rural areas of Java, including Pangandaran, Sukalumi, and Ujung Kulong. None in cities of Jakarta and Ubud, resort areas of Bali and Java, and Gili Islands and the Thousand Islands (Pulau Seribu).
- Drug resistance3 : Chloroquine (P. falciparum and P. vivax).
- Malaria species: P. falciparum 57%, P. vivax. 43%, P. malariae, P. knowlesi, P. ovale rare.
- Recommended chemoprophylaxis: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, or tafenoquine.4
3 Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
4 Primaquine and tafenoquine can cause hemolytic anemia in people with G6PD deficiency. Patients must be screened for G6PD deficiency before starting primaquine or tafenoquine. See Tafenoquine Approved for Malaria Prophylaxis and Treatment for more information.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
High risk exists throughout the country, with moderate risk in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
Additional concerns include air pollution, anthrax disease, avian influenza, helminths, leptospirosis, marine hazards, melioidosis, monkey bites, Nipah virus, plague, schistosomiasis, sexually transmitted infections, snakebites, tuberculosis.
The material below includes information from the US Department of State (DOS), the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to ongoing violence, US (DOS) and Australia (DFAT) advise reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to Central Sulawesi and Papua provinces. UK (FCO) and Canada (GAC) have more limited warnings.
High risk of attack by domestic and transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country, including Bali Island and Jakarta. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
High risk of kidnapping by terrorist groups exists in Aceh, Papua, and West Papua provinces and in the Celebes Sea. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners).
High risk of violent crime (armed robbery, home robbery, sexual assault, and carjacking) and high risk of petty crime exist throughout the country, especially on the islands of Bali and Lombok and in isolated areas.
Scams involving private card games (where travelers are invited by "friendly" strangers and incur substantial financial loss) and exorbitant fees for services have been reported.
Risk exists of robberies and/or assaults occurring after consuming intentionally drugged food or drink; tourists are frequently targeted. Methanol is commonly used to incapacitate victims. Highest threat areas include the islands of Bali, Lombok, and Sumatra.
Protests and demonstrations occur throughout the country, especially in Jakarta, Surabaya, and other large cities, and are generally peaceful but have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.
Armed conflict may occur in Papua Province. Ethnic tensions may be present in Maluku Province. Piracy (involving commercial and private leisure vessels) occurs in coastal and international waters.
Hazardous water conditions (including currents, tides, and undertows) may occur. Heed posted warnings, and avoid beaches that are not patrolled. Do not swim alone or after dark, and do not walk on any beach after dark.
Passenger boats may be unsafe, including ferries traveling between islands (including Bali, Lombok, and other areas frequented by tourists). Decline water transportation in vessels that appear overloaded or lack personal flotation devices or life jackets.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI, and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
High risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road traffic death rate is 12 to 24 per 100,000 population. The rate is less than 10 in most high-income countries.
Speed laws are poorly enforced.
Structural standards for vehicles may not meet international standards.
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has determined that the civil aviation authority of this country oversees its air carriers in accordance with minimum international safety standards.
The monsoon season is from October through March, but heavy rains are common throughout the year. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur, especially in Jakarta and West, Central, East Java, and West Sumatra provinces.
Seismic and volcanic activity frequently occur.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Indonesia
- United States: [+62] 21-3435-9000; id.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+62] 21-2550-7800; www.indonesia.gc.ca
- United Kingdom: [+62] 21-2356-5200; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-embassy-jakarta
- Australia: [+62] 21-2550-5555; indonesia.embassy.gov.au
Indonesia's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.embassyofindonesia.org
- In Canada: www.indonesia-ottawa.org
- In the U.K.: www.indonesianembassy.org.uk
- In Australia: kemlu.go.id/canberra/en
HIV testing may be required to obtain a work or residence visa.