The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Nigeria is a developing nation classified as lower middle income. Located in western Africa (south of Niger and north of Cameroon), the climate is extremely diverse with classifications that range from humid equatorial (short dry season) to dry (arid).
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
- Requirement: A vaccination certificate is required for all travelers aged ≥ 9 months.
Note: All foreign-issued, printed ICVPs continue to be accepted as proof of vaccination at ports of entry in Nigeria for all travelers aged ≥ 9 months, despite implementation of an e-Yellow Card system restricted to Nigerians and persons vaccinated in Nigeria. The e-Yellow Card contains a unique ID number, is the only valid proof of YF vaccine administered in Nigeria, and must be replaced with each passport renewal (lifetime validity of vaccination is unaffected).
- Official Status: listed by WHO as a country where YF transmission risk is present.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, monkeypox, rabies, typhoid fever, or a one time polio booster if you haven't previously received one for travel. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)(2018) Malaria risk due predominantly to P. falciparum exists throughout the year in the entire country.
- Recommended prevention: C – Risk of P. falciparum malaria, in combination with reported chloroquine and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance. Mosquito bite prevention plus atovaquone–proguanil or doxycycline or mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (select according to reported side effects and contraindications) a
aAlternatively, for travel to rural areas with low risk of malaria infection, mosquito bite prevention can be combined with stand–by emergency treatment (SBET).
WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: All.
- Drug resistance3 : Chloroquine.
- Malaria species: P. falciparum >85%, P. ovale 5%–10%, P. vivax rare.
- Recommended chemoprophylaxis: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, or tafenoquine.4
3 Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
4 Primaquine and tafenoquine can cause hemolytic anemia in people with G6PD deficiency. Patients must be screened for G6PD deficiency before starting primaquine or tafenoquine. See Tafenoquine Approved for Malaria Prophylaxis and Treatment for more information.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
High risk exists throughout the country, including in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
Additional concerns include air pollution, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, helminths, lassa fever, marine hazards, melioidosis, schistosomiasis, sexually transmitted infections, snakebites, tuberculosis.
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to terrorism, ongoing violence, and other ongoing security concerns, Canada (GAC) advises avoiding travel to the northern and central states of Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Kaduna, Kano, Plateau, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara and to the southeastern states of Abia, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Delta, Imo, and Rivers (except advises reconsidering travel [or avoiding nonessential travel] to Port Harcourt). Canada also advises reconsidering travel (or avoiding nonessential travel) to the rest of the country. U.S. (DOS), U.K. (FCO), and Australia (DFAT) have more limited warnings.
High risk of attack by domestic terrorist groups exists throughout the country, especially in northern areas, Abuja, and Lagos. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
High risk of kidnapping by terrorist groups exists throughout the country, especially in northern and northeastern areas. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners), journalists, nongovernmental organization workers, missionaries, and aid workers.
High risk of violent crime (armed robbery, home invasion, sexual assault and carjacking) and high risk of petty crime exist throughout the country, especially in Abuja, Lagos, and other cities; on the roads to and from airports; in places frequented by expatriates; in crowded places; in public markets; in popular tourist sites.
Kidnappings by criminal groups occur throughout the country, especially in southern and southwestern areas (including the Niger Delta, Port Hartcourt, and Lagos). Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners and those working for oil companies).
Scams involving corrupt officials have been reported.
Protests and demonstrations occur frequently throughout the country and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.
Armed conflict may occur and a dangerous security environment may exist throughout the country, particularly in Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Kaduna, Kano, Plateau, and Yobe states. Ethnic tensions are present throughout the country. Piracy (involving commercial and private leisure vessels) occurs in coastal and international waters.
Hazardous water conditions (including currents, tides, and undertows) may occur. Heed posted warnings and avoid beaches that are not patrolled. Do not swim alone or after dark and do not walk on any beach after dark.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
High risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is 12 to 24 per 100,000 population. The rate is less than 10 in most high-income countries. Driving at night is not advised. Seek local advice before traveling on roads outside urban areas after dark.
Traffic flows on the right-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
Public buses, mototaxis, and taxis do not meet international safety standards (due to unsafe vehicles, poor maintenance, and hazardous driving).
Due to security concerns, travel on roads between international or domestic airports and major cities is unsafe.
Taxis are unsafe. Use a privately hired driver.
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has determined that the civil aviation authority of this country oversees its air carriers in accordance with minimum international safety standards.
The rainy season is from June through October. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur.
Sandstorms and dust storms occur from November through April.
Extreme heat (which can lead to heat-related illness) occurs from November through April, especially in northern areas.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Nigeria
- United States: [+234] 9-461-4000; ng.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+234] 9-461-2900; www.canadainternational.gc.ca/nigeria
- United Kingdom: [+234] 9-462-3100; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-high-commission-abuja
- Australia: [+234] 0-906-540-5487; nigeria.highcommission.gov.au
Nigeria's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.nigeriaembassyusa.org
- In Canada: www.nigeriahcottawa.ca
- In the U.K.: www.nigeriahc.org.uk
- In Australia: nigeria-can.org.au
HIV testing is not required to obtain a tourist, work, or residence visa.