The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and US CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Syria is a developing nation classified as low income. Located in the Middle East (north of Jordan and east of the Mediterranean Sea), the climate classifications range from dry summer in the west to dry (arid) in the east.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against cholera, COVID-19, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, rabies, or typhoid fever. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)(2021) Very limited malaria risk due exclusively to P. vivax may exist from May through October in foci along the northern border, especially in rural areas of El Hasaka Governorate. No indigenous cases have been reported since 2005, but the reporting system has been disrupted since 2010.
- Recommended prevention: None
WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)
Areas with malaria: None.
Drug resistance: Not applicable.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
High risk exists throughout the country, including in deluxe accommodations. Community sanitation and food safety measures are generally inadequate. Some itineraries (e.g., remote destinations, austere accommodations) and activities (e.g., ecotourism, eating street or local-market food) further increase risk.
Travelers should observe food and beverage precautions, which reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Other Food-Borne Illnesses
Precautions to prevent brucellosis may be needed.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
Additional concerns include anthrax disease, chemical agent exposure, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, helminths, hepatitis C, leptospirosis, marine hazards, plague, schistosomiasis, snakebites, tuberculosis.
The material below includes information from the US Department of State (DOS), the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Consular Travel Advice
Due to terrorism, military conflict, and other ongoing security concerns, US (DOS), UK (FCO), Canada (GAC), and Australia (DFAT) advise avoiding all travel to this country.
High risk of attack by domestic and transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country, including in cities. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
High risk of kidnapping by terrorist groups exists throughout the country, including in Damascus and Aleppo. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners), journalists, nongovernmental organization workers, missionaries, and aid workers.
Moderate risk of violent crime (armed robbery and carjacking) exists throughout the country.
Kidnappings by criminal groups occur throughout the country, including Damascus and Aleppo. Targets may include foreigners (especially Westerners), journalists, missionaries, and aid workers.
Protests and demonstrations may infrequently occur and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities. Disruption to transportation, free movement, or the ability to carry out daily activities may occur.
Armed conflict occurs and a dangerous security environment exists throughout the country.
Significant risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road traffic death rate is more than 24 per 100,000 population, the highest risk category. Carefully assess the safety of transportation options before any road travel.
Structural standards for vehicles may not meet international standards.
Sandstorms and dust storms frequently occur.
Seismic activity occurs.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Syria
- United States: The U.S. does not have an embassy or consulate in Syria.
- Canada: Canada does not have an embassy or consulate in Syria.
- United Kingdom: U.K. does not have an embassy or consulate in Syria.
- Australia: Australia does not have an embassy or consulate in Syria.
Syria's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: Syria does not have an embassy or consulate in the U.S.
- In Canada: Syria does not have an embassy or consulate in Canada.
- In the U.K.: [+44] 020-7235-4621
- In Australia: [+61] 02-9787-1504
HIV and hepatitis testing are required to obtain a work or residence visa. Travelers, including short-term travelers, may be detained or deported after arrival if found to be positive for HIV or hepatitis.