The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
Tanzania is a developing nation classified as low income. Located in eastern Africa along the Indian Ocean (south of Kenya and north of Malawi), the climate is classified as predominantly humid equatorial (long dry season).
See also: Library article for Yellow Fever
An official yellow fever vaccination certificate may be required depending on your itinerary. Vaccination is usually recommended if you’ll be traveling in areas where there is risk of yellow fever transmission.
- Requirement: A vaccination certificate is required for travelers aged ≥ 1 year coming from countries with risk of YF transmission. This also applies to airport transit stops (no exit through immigration checkpoint) longer than 12 hours in risk countries. Note: Proof of YF vaccination or a YF exemption letter is often requested from travelers transiting (regardless of duration) countries with risk of YF transmission and is uncommonly requested from all travelers entering Zanzibar, or from travelers coming directly from Europe by air, despite Tanzania's published declaration to the contrary under the International Health Regulations. Payment of a fine may be required from those lacking either proof of YF vaccination or a YF exemption letter.
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against cholera, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, or typhoid fever. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)(2018) Malaria risk due predominantly to P. falciparum exists throughout the year in the entire country below 1800m.
- Recommended prevention in risk areas: C – Risk of P. falciparum malaria, in combination with reported chloroquine and sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance. Mosquito bite prevention plus atovaquone–proguanil or doxycycline or mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (select according to reported side effects and contraindications) a
aAlternatively, for travel to rural areas with low risk of malaria infection, mosquito bite prevention can be combined with stand–by emergency treatment (SBET).
WHO Country List footnote: When available, the date of the most recent update or confirmation is indicated in parentheses in the country list. If no date is indicated, the most recent update or confirmation was provided before 2013.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: All areas < 1,800 m (5,906 ft).
- Estimated relative risk of malaria for US travelers: High.
- Drug resistance4: Chloroquine.
- Malaria species: P. falciparum > 85%, P. ovale > 10%, P. malariae and P. vivax rare.
- Recommended chemoprophylaxis: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine.
4 Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
High risk exists throughout the country, with moderate risk in deluxe accommodations. Food and beverage precautions may reduce the likelihood of illness.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Other Food-Borne Illnesses
Precautions to prevent brucellosis may be needed.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
African trypanosomiasis, chikungunya, dengue, onchocerciasis, Rift Valley fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tick-bite fever, West Nile virus, Zika may pose a risk. Personal protective measures are important.
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Risk of attack by domestic terrorist groups exists throughout the country, including Zanzibar Island. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
Moderate risk of violent crime (armed robbery, home invasion, sexual assault, carjacking, and murder) and high risk of petty crime exist throughout the country, especially in areas frequented by tourists, particularly on Zanzibar (including Stone Town and popular tourist beaches); in Dar es Salaam (particularly in the city center, Ubungo bus terminal, Masaki/Osterbay peninsula area, Coco Beach, and Toure Drive); in Arusha; in parks and nature reserves (including the northern circuit in the vicinity of Serengeti National Park); in regions surrounding Mount Kilimanjaro.
Express kidnappings to force cash withdrawals at ATMs may occur throughout the country.
Scams involving corrupt officials have been reported.
Risk exists of robberies and/or assaults occurring after consuming intentionally drugged food or drink; tourists are frequently targeted.
Protests and demonstrations occur and have the potential to turn violent without warning. Bystanders are at risk of harm from violence or from the response by authorities.
Piracy (involving commercial and private, leisure vessels) occurs in coastal and international waters of the Indian Ocean.
Passenger boats may be unsafe, including ferries traveling between islands and from mainland Tanzania to islands in the Zanzibar archipelago. Decline water transportation in vessels that appear overloaded or lack personal flotation devices or life jackets.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI, and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
Other Safety Threats
Risk exists for fatal wildlife attacks on safaris and in game parks and reserves. Travelers should closely follow park regulations, always maintain a safe distance from wildlife, and should not exit vehicles or protected enclosures.
Very high risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is greater than 24 per 100,000 population, the highest risk category. Carefully assess the safety of transportation options before any road travel. Speed laws are poorly enforced. Seek local advice before traveling on roads outside urban areas after dark. Driving at night is not advised.
Traffic flows on the left-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
Many taxis are unsafe. Use taxis from official ranks or dispatched via smart phone app or radio from a reputable company and ascertain the license or identification number of the dispatched vehicle.
The monsoon season is from June through October in coastal areas and islands. The rainy seasons are from March through May and from November through December. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur.
Seismic activity occurs.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in Tanzania
- United States: [+255] 22-229-4000; tz.usembassy.gov
- Canada: [+255] 22-216-3300; www.tanzania.gc.ca
- United Kingdom: [+255] 22-229-0000; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-high-commission-dar-es-salaam
- Australia: Australia does not have an embassy or consulate in Tanzania.
Tanzania's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In the U.S.: www.tanzaniaembassy-us.org
- In Canada: www.tzrepottawa.ca
- In the U.K.: tzhc.uk
- In Australia: www.tanzaniaconsul.com
HIV testing is not required to obtain a tourist, work, or residence visa.