The health risk information presented here is summarized from Shoreland Travax®, a decision-support tool used by health care providers to perform a detailed health risk analysis based on specific locations, individual travel styles, and traveler risk behaviors. Travax provides practitioners current, independently researched malaria risk and prevention recommendations in a map-based format that goes beyond the annual WHO and CDC statements included here. Not included here are current reports from Travax of disease outbreaks or environmental events that may pose elevated risks to travelers’ health and safety. The Providers section of this site offers a directory of health care providers who utilize Shoreland Travax for travel health counseling. Learn more about the detailed reports and maps available from these practitioners (includes links to samples).
The United States is an industrialized nation in the top 25% of the world's economies. Located in North America, the climate is extremely diverse with classifications that range from humid cold (no dry season)—with cooler temperatures in some high-altitude areas—to humid equatorial (long dry season).
Depending on your itinerary, your personal risk factors, and the length of your visit, your health care provider may offer you vaccination against hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal meningitis, or rabies. Routine immunizations, such as those that prevent tetanus/diphtheria or "childhood" diseases, should be reviewed and updated as needed.
See also: Library article for Malaria
The following is current information as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC):
WHO—International Travel and Health (current online update, Country List)No statement given.
CDC—Health Information for International Travel (current online edition)Areas with malaria: None.
Drug resistance: Not applicable.
See also: Library article for Travelers' Diarrhea
Minimal risk exists throughout the country. Community sanitation is generally good, and health concerns related to food and beverages are minimal.
Travelers should carry loperamide for self-treatment of diarrhea and, if risk is moderate to high, an antibiotic to add if diarrhea is severe. Consult a knowledgeable health care provider regarding which antibiotic is appropriate for you and most effective for your destination.
Other Food-Borne Illnesses
Precautions to prevent seafood poisoning may be needed.
Insect- and Arthropod-Borne Diseases
Other Disease and Health Risks
The material below includes information from the U.S. Department of State (DOS), U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), Global Affairs Canada (GAC), and Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), as well as from additional open-source material. Standard safety precautions that apply to all international travel can be found in the Library article Safety and Security.
Risk of attack by domestic and transnational terrorist groups exists throughout the country. Targets may include domestic and international organizations and businesses; public places and events, including those frequented by tourists; and transportation systems.
Low risk of violent crime (armed robbery and home robbery) and moderate risk of petty crime exist throughout the country, mainly in urban areas, areas frequented by tourists, and on public transportation.
Theft of valuables from unattended rental vehicles and accommodations is common.
Scams involving the use of distraction techniques to commit robbery (including ploys to detain drivers) have been reported.
Protests and demonstrations may infrequently occur and have the potential to turn violent without warning.
Rent water sports equipment from reputable operators. Scuba dive only with personnel certified by PADI or NAUI, and use equipment only from PADI- or NAUI-certified dive operators.
Risk of traffic-related injury or death exists. The road-traffic death rate is 7 to 12 per 100,000 population. The rate is less than 10 in most high-income countries.
Traffic flows on the right-hand side of the road. Travelers (including drivers and pedestrians) accustomed to traffic moving on the opposite side should be vigilant when navigating traffic.
The hurricane season is from June through November in coastal areas along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Floods, mudslides, and landslides may occur.
Winter storms frequently occur in the northern half of the contiguous U.S., especially in the northeast.
Wildfires occur from June through September, especially in western states, including California.
Seismic and volcanic activity frequently occur, especially in the Pacific Northwest region, Alaska, California, and Hawaii.
Selected Embassies or Consulates in the United States
- Canada: [+1] 844-880-6519; www.canada.ca/Canada-In-Washington
- United Kingdom: [+1] 202-588-6500; www.gov.uk/world/organisations/british-embassy-washington
- Australia: [+1] 202-797-3000; www.usa.embassy.gov.au
United States's Embassies or Consulates in Selected Countries
- In Canada: ca.usembassy.gov
- In the U.K.: uk.usembassy.gov
- In Australia: au.usembassy.gov
HIV testing is not required to obtain a tourist, work, or residence visa.